Instructions of Ceramic Tile Floor
by：Heng Xing 2020-03-30
In just three steps you can lay a ceramic tile floor in the bathroom which will endure as long as the house itself. The first task is to take up the old floor covering, whatever it may be. After that, take up the wood top floor and expose the subfloor. Remove all nails and debris and check the subfloor carefully for signs of rot, warped boards and damaged spots. If any boards need replacing, does it at this time, for the new tile floor will cover the subfloor permanently. As part of the preparation, remove the door from its hinges and the threshold, or saddle, so that the tiles may be laid in a straight line between the inside door casings. Remove the shoe molding and baseboard so that the tiles may extend to the wall. Finally, consider other obstacles on the floor. Usually radiators can be jacked up slightly, or at least enough to lay the tile beneath them. Water pipes will have to be surrounded with tile. Permanent fixtures will also be encircled with the tile. The second step is laying the tile. Begin by spreading a layer of heavy waterproof paper over the entire area, overlapping at least 2' at every joint, and turning up the edges from 1/2 to 3/4' at walls and around fixed objects. Tack down the paper sufficiently to prevent moving it while working. Over the paper lay a fine-mesh metal plaster lath, tacking it down over its entire surface at 6' intervals with rustproof nails. The lath must be absolutely rigid. Cut the lath with tin snips or wire cutters and fit it closely against the wall and in the corners. To fit around pipes, cut as shown in the sketch below. Next comes the cement, a mixture of 1 part Portland cement, 5/2 to 3 parts sand and just enough water to make a sandy mixture. Avoid too much water, as tiles will completely sink into a watery cement. Spread the cement to the depth of 3/4' and level it off. If you have a large area to cover, divide it into sections with grounds (3/4' boards that will be used as a guide in leveling off the cement) and lay only one section at a time. Grounds are removed as work progresses, so do not drive nails in such a way that the grounds cannot be easily removed. Tiles of this type, sometimes called mosaic tiles, are usually sold in one or two square-foot 'sheets,' already pasted at correct spacing on sheets of paper. Lay the first sheet on the cement, paper side up, in one corner. Lay the next alongside, keeping the same spacing between sections as is observed on the ones pasted to the paper. Continue until the area is covered. Sooner or later you will come to spots where tiles must be cut. They can be broken by first scoring each side with a glass cutter, and then snapped with a pair of pliers. Ragged edges are flaked off by little nips with the nose of the pliers. Irregular and curved lines are formed in the same way. Nip off the surface side carefully to a marked line and remove the rough lower sections at will. Slate and stone cutters, or power-driven Carborundum discs, speed the process of cutting tiles but are by no means necessary.