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by:Heng Xing     2020-08-25

Yaroslav, the Grand Prince of the Kievan Rus' constructed a big cathedral in his capital, Kiev. The model of the church was the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, and it was also called Saint Sophia Cathedral.

The Madaba Map is the oldest surviving cartographic depiction of the Holy Land. It depicts an space from Lebanon within the north to the Nile Delta in the south, and from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the Eastern Desert. The largest and most detailed factor of the topographic depiction is Jerusalem, at the middle of the map. The map is enriched with many naturalistic options, like animals, fishing boats, bridges and palm bushes. The japanese provinces of the Eastern Roman and later the Byzantine Empires inherited a robust creative tradition from the Late Antiquity.

In a church like this with excessive walls and few home windows, mosaics had been brighter and reflected more gentle. The old St. Peter's Basilica had been adorned with mosaic, as was widespread in churches constructed through the early Christian period; the seventeenth century adopted the tradition to boost continuity. The Crusaders in the Holy Land additionally adopted mosaic ornament under native Byzantine affect. During their twelfth-century reconstruction of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem they complemented the present Byzantine mosaics with new ones. Almost nothing of them survived except the 'Ascension of Christ' in the Latin Chapel (now confusingly surrounded by many twentieth-century mosaics).

Generally wall mosaics haven't survived within the area due to the destruction of buildings however the St. Catherine's Monastery is exceptional. On the upper wall Moses is proven in two panels on a landscape background. In the apse we can see the Transfiguration of Jesus on a golden background. The apse is surrounded with bands containing medallions of apostles and prophets, and two contemporary figure, 'Abbot Longinos' and 'John the Deacon'.

The final nice mosaics in Madaba had been made in 767 within the Church of the Virgin Mary (discovered in 1887). It is a masterpiece of the geometric type with a Greek inscription in the central medallion. Detail from the mosaic floor of the Byzantine church of in Masada. Important Justinian era mosaics decorated the Saint Catherine's Monastery on Mount Sinai in Egypt.

Lot and Procopius was founded in 567 in Nebo village under Mount Nebo (now Khirbet Mukhayyat). Another two spectacular mosaics have been found in the ruined Church of Preacher John nearby. One of the mosaics was positioned above the opposite one which was fully covered and unknown until the fashionable restoration. The figures on the older mosaic have thus escaped the iconoclasts. The single most important piece of Byzantine Christian mosaic artwork in the East is the Madaba Map, made between 542 and 570 as the floor of the church of Saint George at Madaba, Jordan.

It was built primarily by Byzantine grasp craftsmen, despatched by Constantine Monomachos, between 1037 and 1046. Naturally the extra necessary surfaces within the inside have been decorated with golden mosaics. In the dome we will see the traditional stern Pantokrator supported by angels. Between the 12 home windows of the drum have been apostles and the four evangelists on the pendentives. The apse is dominated by an orant Theotokos with a Deesis in three medallions above.

Similarly to Italy and Constantinople churches and important secular buildings in the region of Syria and Egypt were decorated with elaborate mosaic panels between the 5th and 8th centuries. The nice majority of these artistic endeavors had been later destroyed however archeological excavations unearthed many surviving examples. Mosaics had greater intrinsic longevity than both frescoes or canvases.

More substantial fragments have been preserved from the 12th-century mosaic decoration of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem. The mosaics in the nave are arranged in 5 horizontal bands with the figures of the ancestors of Christ, Councils of the Church and angels.
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